Reporting Verbs

Algunos de estos verbos parecen un poco más complicados de usar que ‘decir’ y ‘contar’, pero es sólo una cuestión de conocer los patrones de conjugación y las estructuras del verbo en cuestión.

‎Como seguramente sabes, a menudo podemos usar ‘that’ o no en inglés. Lo hemos puesto entre comillas para mostrar que es opcional, el significado es exactamente el mismo si usas that  o no.‎

 

reporting verbs

Veamos algunos verbos

SAY

‎Veamos primero los verbos que ya hemos mencionado. El patrón de conjugación básica para el uso de ‘decir’ para su forma indirecta es:‎‎‎

say + (that) + clause

She said (that) she had already eaten.

La misma expresión en su forma directa es “Ya he comido”

TELL

‎Por otro lado, con ‘Contar’ necesitamos usar un complemento, una persona que nos de la información.‎

tell + someone + (that) + clause

I told John (that) I had seen the new film.

La misma expresión para decir esto en su forma directa es “He visto la nueva película”.

‎Cuando estamos dando órdenes, también podemos utilizar otro patrón con ‘Tell’

tell + someone + to + infinitive

She told the children to go to bed.

ASK

Utilizamos ‘ASK’ en preguntas o peticiones, para preguntas utilizamos el patrón:

ask + someone + if / question word + clause

I asked my boss if I could leave early.
She asked them where the station was.

‎Para las peticiones utilizamos el patrón:

ask + someone + to + infinitive

I asked Lucy to pass me the salt.

‎Existen otros verbos que siguen patrones distintos, pero me temo que no hay ninguna regla acerca de ellos así que es necesario aprenderlos de memoria.

ADVISE

(Dar consejos)

Advise + someone + to + infinitive

She advised him to see a doctor.

Advise + (that) + clause

The staff advise that you carry water at all times.

Advise + against + verb-ing

I’d advise against leaving early.

AGREE

Agree + to + infinitive

We agreed to meet the following day.

Agree + (that) + clause

I agreed that the children could do their homework later.

APOLOGISE

Apologise + (to + someone) + for + verb-ing

They apologised to us for being late.
She apologised for forgetting the book.

Apologise (+ to + someone) + for + noun

She apologised for the delay.

DECIDE

Decide + to + infinitive

They decided to go to the cinema.

Decide + (that) + clause

They decided that they would go to the cinema.

ENCOURAGE

Encourage + someone + to + infinitive

She encouraged him to take the exam again.

The teacher encouraged the students to ask questions.

EXPLAIN

Explain + (that) + clause

The teacher explained that the course was finished.

Explain + noun + to + someone

She explained the grammar to the students.
NOT: She explained me the grammar.

Explain + question word + to + infinitive

They explained how to buy a train ticket on the internet.
John explained where to find the restaurant.

Explain + question word + clause

We explained what the exams would cover.

INSIST

Insist + on + verb-ing

He insisted on paying.

Insist + (that) + clause

He insisted that we sit down.

PROMISE

Promise + to + infinitive

He promised to arrive early.

Promise + (someone) + (that) + clause

I promised him that I wouldn’t do it again.

RECOMMEND

Recommend + verb-ing

I recommend visiting the British Museum while you’re in London.

Recommend + (that) + clause

I recommend that you visit the British Museum

REMIND

Remind + someone + to + infinitive

She reminded him to take his keys.

Remind + someone + (that) + clause

They reminded me that there is a party tonight.

SUGGEST

Suggest + verb-ing

I suggest leaving soon

Suggest + (that) + clause

I suggest that you come as soon as you can.
NOT: I suggest him to come.

WARN

Warn + someone + (not) + to + infinitive

I warned them not to go in the water.

Warn + someone + about + something

She warned us about the dangerous roads.

Negatives

Atentos a la conjugación de los verbos

When there’s a clause, we make the negative in the usual way: She said that she didn’t like ice cream.

When there’s ‘to + infinitive’, we generally put ‘not’ before ‘to’: He promised not to do it again.

When there’s ‘verb-ing’, we generally put ‘not’ in front of it: I advise not taking the bus.

 

Advanced Point

‎En inglés formal, algunos verbos que van seguidos de ‘(that) + clause’ usan el infinitivo en lugar del verbo en tiempo presente.

‎La forma del presente simple en inglés es a menudo la misma que la infinitiva. Pero cuando el sujeto es ‘he’, ‘she’ o ‘it’ o cuando el verbo es ‘to be’, lo vemos a continuación:

I advise that he go to bed early. (Normally we’d expect: I advise that he goes to bed early.)

I insist that she come now. (Normally we’d expect: I insist that she comes now.)

They suggested that the cats be put in the garden for the night. (Normally we’d expect: They suggested that the cats are put in the garden for the night.)

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